Chapter 11: Miscellaneous


  1. The future of visually impaired youth in France
    Francis Bo�
  2. Establishing structures to facilitate effective curriculum access for visually impaired children in the United Kingdom - a model for the future
    Rory Cobb and Steve Minett, UK
  3. Conceptual basics to the work of the government standards of children with problems of development
    Nina Dubova, Ukraine
  4. The residential environment: what is quality?
    Michael Gray, UK
  5. High education for visually impaired in Belarus
    Ludmila Kukhareva, Belarus
  6. Educating Disabled Children: Is an individual or a Social Model the Correct Approach?
    Colin Low, UK
  7. A "feeling" for the education of the blind: A brief history of the education of the Blind illustrated with colour slides of postage stamps
    Ken Stuckey, Sweden


  1. Movement as therapy
    Jaap Brouwer, the Netherlands
  2. Can dance help to liberate the bodies of blind children and foster initiative?
    Kjersti Engebrigtsen, Norway


  1. Play schemas: an open door to development
    Robert J. Orr, UK
  2. The role of play activities in the development of visually handicapped students of primary school level
    Evdokia Stancheva, Bulgaria
  3. Therapeutic groups with blind children during childhood
    Griselda Tubau, Spain


  1. Education and Development of The Touch for Visually impaired.
    Francis Bo�, France
  2. The investigation of visual and touch perception of normally developed and visually impaired children
    Romanas Kaffemanas, Lithuania
  3. Does a stone look the way it feels?
    Boguslaw Marek, Poland
  4. Model for tactile exploration of objects in small space by blind children
    Mira Tzvetkova-Arsova, Bulgaria


  1. The auditory aspect in sight pedagogical work
    Inge Bager and Lykke Jensen, Denmark
  2. Setting up a braille printing office at the school for the blind in Antsirabe, Madagascar
    Hans Baumann, the Netherlands
  3. A virtual library for braille music - the miracle project
    Antonio Quatraro, Italy
  4. Post traumatic Stress Disorders in blind and partially sighted people in Ljubljana
    Tina Runjic, Croatia

General 11.1-11.7


The future of visually impaired youth in France

full text of lecture 11.1

Francis Bo�

CSES- Peyrelongue (School)/GPEAA (Association)
12 Rue A. De Musset - B.P. 27 -, Ambares, 33440 France
Fax:+33 5 56 77 6915

I.The individualised project and the establishment project.

The individualised project must open out on to a life project:

  1. Logic
  2. Systematic interference

  3. Evaluation
  4. Acquisition

  5. The objectives:
  6. Work with the family

II. The carrying out of the project:

III. Embarking on a life project

IV. The concepts: integration and inclusion

  1. Definitions - of integration and inclusion
  2. The actions of the institution and of the team
  3. Know-how
  4. State of mind
  5. Autonomy and the process of becoming autonomous

V. For opportunities on

  1. A personal level
  2. A social level
  3. A professional level

VI. VISUALLY IMPAIRED. The handicapped and society

  1. Perception
  2. Acceptance
  3. Participation
  4. Society frees itself

VII. Conclusions:

  1. Work requirements (Dorigozzi)
  2. The relation with society (Backman)
  3. Perception, integration and society (Blanc)
  4. Living with one's handicap (van Dooren)
  5. Conclusions by F. Bo�


Establishing structures to facilitate effective curriculum access for visually impaired children in the United Kingdom - a model for the future

full text of lecture 11.2

Rory Cobb and Steve Minett, UK

RNIB Education and Employment Centre
Whittington rd, Worcester, WR5 2TX UK
Fax:+44 1905 764867

This paper traces the recent development of the Royal National Institute for the Blind's Curriculum Information Service, in the context of the United Kingdom government's commitment to promoting inclusive education for children with special educational needs. The central argument of the paper is that effective inclusion depends on the development of a structured relationship between the mainstream and special school sectors. The Curriculum Information Service is held up as a model of this relationship in practice. The service provides a wide range of curriculum advice and information to teachers working with visually impaired pupils across the United Kingdom. Central to it is a new partnership in RNIB between the education network, working mainly to support inclusive education, and an established residential special school at Worcester. The contribution of these two elements and the interaction between them is discussed in detail.

The paper considers the impact of the Curriculum Information Service to date in areas such as information gathering and dissemination, training and development work and the co-ordination of specialist curriculum groups. It concludes by identifying the major barriers to curriculum access which remain for visually impaired children and outlining the part which the service might play in overcoming these.


Conceptual basics to the work of the government standards of children with problems of development

Nina Dubova, Ukraine

Ministry of Education, main specialist of Department of Boarding School
Roltsora str. 9/85, 04194 Kiev, Ukraine
Tel:+380 44 476 5692

Innovative process in part contains the betterment of education and care-giving of those receiving a high school education, this makes government standards necessary to determine the work of education for those with developmental problems.

Special government standards touching special education contain certain categories of children with slow sensory, physical, and mental development. Government standards and requirements contain corrective, rehabilitative, and abilitative work. Corrective work with children becomes special actualisation.

Government Standards of Education - this is a document which differentiates the complex of norms and requirements for the education of those with special psychological development. It includes a basic educational plan for the educational standards of knowledge and educational subjects. It contains government, regional and school components.

The standard is the basis objective level of those who have a problem with development, not depending upon the form of how he received the education. The government not only determines the requirements, but also guarantees that the children receive it.

The goal of the educational standards guarantees the right of those with a developmental problem to receive an education, this includes those hard of seeing, to reaching their potential opportunities of education, this compensates for formation of the abilities and actions which corrects deviations of development, individual approach, opportunity to continue education, receive a profession etc., for the optimal integration of the child into society. This gives the opportunity for the pedagogue and parents to orient themselves towards the compulsory education requirements of the students.

In connection with this, there is a special meaning of psycho-medical-pedagogical consultation, which allows the improvement of work with profilactic deviations, correcting the deviations of development, works for children with an individual programme of education and care-giving along with the complex of rehabilitation.

Full text not available in English


The residential environment: what is quality?

full text of lecture 11.4

Michael Gray, UK

Queen Alexandra College
Court Oak Road, Harborne, Birmingham, B17 9TG, UK
Fax:+44 121 428 5048

The paper will look at the aims and objectives of Queen Alexandra College's residential services for people aged 16 - 65 with a visual impairment, many of whom have additional disabilities. It will consider what constitutes quality provision and what is good practise. In particular it will investigate the values of

A short overview of the theory of Social Integration (Wolfensberger / Normalisation) will be presented together with an evaluation of how far Queen Alexandra College meets the targets that it sets itself with respect to residential care.


High education for visually impaired in Belarus

full text of poster 11.5

Ludmila Kukhareva, Belarus

Institute of Engineering Cybernetics
National Academy of Sciences
Surganovstr. 6, 220012 Minsk, Belarus
E-mail: losik@NEWMAN.BASNET.BY

Since 1990 the situation in Belarus has been slowly changing and as a result of it the influx of people wishing to get high education in Law, Journalism, Psychology, Teaching, communication is now observed. The lack of Braille books, large printed production and necessary equipment makes students among disabled people find other ways of getting information. So a computer gives an access to necessary information. It has been helping blind and partially sighted people to rehabilitate themselves in society. Now the main project "computerisation of population among visually impaired people" gives an opportunity of increasing a role of a computer in studies and everyday life. Though the level of education in Soviet Union was high, it continues to remain on the same level in Belarus. Disabled people contribute to culture, sport, science that break people's stereotypes and prejudices against the disabled. Gradually they are becoming the intellectual potential of the society and achieving success in all spheres of life. At the end of my report I would like to underline that disability does not mean a failure in life as every person who has a desire and strong will can have success in life. Therefore it is impossible to deny the importance of education.


Educating Disabled Children: Is an individual or a Social Model the Correct Approach?

full text of lecture 11.6

Colin Low, UK

Graham Lodge, 19 Graham Road, London E8 1DA UK
Tel:(+44) 020 7249 7719

In the field of disability theory, controversy has raged over the past two decades and more as to whether an individual (usually referred to as a medical) or a social model represents the best way of thinking about disability. The upshot of this is that the social model is probably now the dominant paradigm - in theoretical circles at least.

This paper is in two parts: the first reviews recent theorising about disability and in particular presents a critique of the social model which any dominant paradigm needs to take account of. The conclusion is that individual and social models are not mutually exclusive. Neither can validly be advanced as a complete account of disability and any complete account needs to incorporate both perspectives.

The second part of the paper applies this analysis to the education of disabled and particularly blind children in an effort to achieve a conceptual framework for our work in which educators of visually impaired children can feel fully confident.


A "feeling" for the education of the blind: A brief history of the education of the Blind illustrated with colour slides of postage stamps

full text of lecture 11.7

Ken Stuckey, Sweden

Dalagatan 31, 2 Tr�g
SE 11323 Stockholm, Sweden
Fax:+468 4 700 707

A brief history of the education of the blind from antiquity to the present time. This history starts with a review education for the blind in Asia, Middle East, North Africa and Europe during antiquity. It focuses on the beginnings of education in Europe starting with Denis Diderot (1713-1783) and his famous "Letter on the Blind" and going on to Valentin Ha�y founding the first school for the blind in Paris in 1784. It looks at what and why certain subjects were taught in the schools for the blind in the 19th century. The importance of the Louis Braille and the braille system in the development of literacy for the blind. It cover the past two hundred years the education of the blind and how it has changed from separation to integration. A short history of some of the schools for the blind world-wide. The development of educational aids and appliances and orientation and mobility. It ends with a look at the future. The presentation is illustrated with a number of colour slides world-wide postage stamps.

Movement 11.8-11.9


Movement as therapy

full text of poster 11.8

Jaap Brouwer, the Netherlands

Respo DS-DI
Postbus 263, 8440 AQ Heerenveen, the Netherlands
Fax:+31 513 636 205

RESPO DS-DI takes on responsibility for the development and stimulation of sport and movement for people with a disability at base level, in order to contribute to their social and physical rehabilitation. RESPO-DS-DI does not involve itself with high-level sport. The foundation's objective is to introduce as many disabled people as possible to recreational sports and movement, respecting and starting from people's individual disabilities. RESPO seeks co-operation with such organisations in the whole world, to stimulate mutual communication and to provide services in the area of development and encouragement of sports activities whenever possible.


Can dance help to liberate the bodies of blind children and foster initiative?

full text of poster 11.9

Kjersti Engebrigtsen, Norway

Dancer, choreographer, teacher in special education.
Svalbarckvn 14, 0375 Oslo, Norway

An investigation of the effect of the intervention in order to propose a basic structure for a future method in special education.
A dance project for three blind children between 7-9 years that went on for a year. This work formed the basis of my master degree in special education.

In my work as a dance teacher and choreographer 1 happened to meet a blind student. I had been working with movement for grown-up blind people for thirteen years and had become familiar with their problems concerning posture, communication with seeing people and most of all their lack of knowledge about the diversity of movements. I started working with children in an attempt to prevent some of these problems from arising. I concentrated this experiment on children without any other handicaps and I focused my attention on the congenitally blind child whose physical development was most at risk.

I introduce them to dance, contact improvisation, body awareness, use of drums, live music and singing. I worked together with an accordionist and several assistants. I chose three concepts for analysing the results: grounding, diversity of expression and initiative. My data includes four video observations from four different occasions, two expert interviews and four interviews with the parents. The research of early intervention and deaf-blind proved essential in regard to the success of this work. My case study, a congenitally blind child, improved her posture, became more independent and crossed many barriers. She got rid of her fear for water and for horse riding. In my written paper I use the image of the sleeping beauty and I write: The congenitally blind child was like in a deep sleep. Her body was like in a winter sleep. Slowly it awoke, liberated itself and revealed itself in its natural beauty.

In the poster presentation I will show a large photograph. I will give information about the practical sides of the project and focus on the importance of giving the congenitally blind child as many physical experiences as possible (David Warrens hypothesis that the developmental lag is due to the limitation in experience). Finally I will suggest the basic structure for a future method based on my findings.

Play 11.10-11.12


Play schemas: an open door to development

full text of lecture 11.10

Robert J. Orr, UK

Self-employed consultant
98 Broadlands Desborough, NN14 2TH UK
Fax:+44 1536 506476

A family's choice of play materials governs the blind child's choice of activities.

Play schema research illustrates the special limitations imposed by blindness on a child's development through play.

Unless we facilitate play experiences, the blind child will have restricted access to its culture and the icons through which culture is transmitted - including language.

This presentation will outline how play schemas help us structure our presentations of opportunities to explore and so open up possibilities for shared attention and the acquisition of language

The converse of an imposed curriculum is held to be the route for development

Passivity and autistic styles of relating and speaking are challenged with this approach, even for children with profound and compound disabilities.


The role of play activities in the development of visually handicapped students of primary school level

Evdokia Stancheva, Bulgaria

Varna School for the Blind
M. Vilite KV. Asparvhovo, Varna, 9003 Bulgaria
Fax:+359 52 774270

Play is a basic and dominant activity in the child's first years of live. As such it has plenty of opportunities for stimulation of all areas of development of the visually handicapped child. Play activities as manipulating with objects, playing with toys and getting a concept for your own body are crucial for the cognitive development. Different play activities help the student to develop concepts of the animals. During the activities of daily living the students learn not only the eating or dressing skills but get ideas of the household objects and develop social skills. The combination of play activities and songs is useful to be accompanied by different movements, imitation and other activities. The fairy tales and short stories are a good opportunity for emotional and intellectual development.

No further text available.


Therapeutic groups with blind children during childhood

full text of lecture 11.12

Griselda Tubau, Spain

University Ramon Llull
Rambla de Prat, 5 ,2n 1a, Barcelona, 08012 Spain
Fax:+34 93 2377914

This communication describes the experience in therapeutic groups using play with blind children during childhood.

One of the hypotheses of this work is that children do not have more or less abilities, but they either have access to interactions that are significant for them or they do not. In this sense, the play groups we describe represent the possibility for these children to have access to a kind of environment and, especially, to a certain relationship with "another carer", which insofar as this adapts to their specific situation, becomes a significant frame of growth.

On the other hand, we also point out the importance of play in the child's development, especially that of the blind child. Through play, children can create and use all of their personality, which enhances the knowledge of their own person and their relations with the environment.

The creation and carrying out of such therapeutic groups in early childhood education springs from the need to offer a complementary frame of growth to the regular schooling of blind children. This group work is a preventive setting, insofar as it enhances growth and helps to elaborate the emotional difficulties of the children that take part in it.

Some basic objectives of this work are to promote communication and social skills by living together in group; to help children to reflect on the situations that visual impairment implies by stating and expressing them in group; to help them to be aware of the sensations by connecting them to emotions and feelings; to optimise the children's permeability to external experiences; to allow professionals to observe and guide the children in the group, something which is difficult to observe in an individual relationship or within the reference school group.

Touch/Tactile 11.13-11.16


Education and Development of The Touch for Visually impaired. Documents in Relief (DIR): Creation and Use of Pedagogical Methods

full text of poster 11.13

Francis Bo�, France

CSES- Peyrelongue (School)/GPEAA (Association)
12 Rue A. De Musset - B.P. 27 -, Ambares, 33440 France
Fax:+31 5 56 77 6915

General presentation:

  1. The technics of the touch and kinestesical development :
  2. - the "intermodal" transfer
    - the compensation
    - the representation

  3. The explorative activity
  4. The pleasure through the touch that motives
  5. To get touch : unfolds imagination
  6. Touch requires time
  7. The different kinds of touch
  8. Touching is not dangerous
  9. Touching must be allowed
    The touch head of integration and beginning of autonomy

  10. The touch allows the access to the Braille, and to the relief documents.
  11. Introduction to the appropriate techniques:
  12. - Braille
    - Documents in relief

  13. Why ? -How ? -What results ?
  14. Used techniques
  15. The supports
  16. Pedagogical uses
  17. Synthetical conclusion and orientation for a future utilisation more complete, more concrete, more adapted and normalised.


The investigation of visual and touch perception of normally developed and visually impaired children

full text of poster 11.14

Romanas Kaffemanas, Lithuania

Siauliai University
Visinskio 25, 5400 Siauliai, Lithuania
Fax:+370 1 43 54 59

We research a general level of perception of normally developed and visual impaired (poor eyesight) children 11-15 years old in two ways: touch and visual. Specially made cardboard figures we used as stimuli. We registered a general time of identification of figures; character of touch motions and characteristic of mistakes. Every figure after perception was draw. The research evidenced: A) touch results of visually impaired children is better in many cases; B) touch motions of visual impaired children is more purposeful and consistency.

We research also interdependency between touch and visual perception of normally developed and visual impaired children. We were specially interesting in properties of intermodal transfer of an image. The aim of this research was to verify the thesis of compensating disturbed human functions by using retained analyzers. Much better abilities of transferring visual and touch and touch were observe among the group with poor eyesight. It has been start: having joined the two analyzers -- the visual and the touch -- in the process of perception the results of perception in many cases are notice better. Visually impaired children use touch more effectively.

We will present also experimental research data about that children's passive, instrumental and active touch perception


Does a stone look the way it feels?: Introducing tactile graphics, spatial relations and visual concepts to congenitally blind children

full text of lecture 11.15 (RAR archive)

Boguslaw Marek, Poland

Dept. of ELT Typhlomethodology, Catholic University of Lublin
Al. Raclawickie 14, 20-950 Lublin, Poland
Fax:+48 81 533 2572

Questions asked by congenitally blind children are often a manifestation of their effort to understand the world which surrounds them. In the absence of eyesight, language becomes one of their chief sources of information. But while highly visual concepts of size, distance, location and spatial relations between objects make perfect sense to sighted children, explaining them to a blind child can pose a major problem.

The paper shows how a wide range of concepts which are acquired by sighted people with the help of vision can be "translated" into other manifestations of these concepts, and how they can be accessed through touch, movement and sound. It also shows how careful and well planned introduction of tactile graphics can assist visually impaired learners in acquiring and reinforcing the understanding of visual concepts.

Simple tools designed for explaining the relation between three dimensional objects and two dimensional graphics will be presented, as well as a range of classroom activities aiming at giving congenitally blind children the confidence that although they cannot see, they can be in command of the space around them. The activities concentrate on tasks involving the children in dividing, organising and altering space, and on representing the results of their intervention graphically.


Model for tactile exploration of objects in small space by blind children

full text of lecture 11.16

Mira Tzvetkova-Arsova, Bulgaria

Sofia University, Dept. of Special Education
Shipchensky Prohod str. 69-A, 1574 Sofia, Bulgaria
Fax:+359 2 72 23 21

There was a short review of the special literature made which showed that a certain model, technique or strategy for tactile exploration of objects in small space did not exist. A description was made of the various views of the authors on the need of a technique for tactile exploration. A special emphasis was put on some authors disagreeing with the existence of such a structured model or technique. A focus was also put on the fact that the tactile exploration is of crucial importance for the whole tactile development of the blind and has an influence also on the cognitive development. On this basis the author developed a four-level model and the fulfilment of its levels was practically examined. 60 Blind pupils of preparatory, first and second grade of the special schools in Bulgaria attended the study exploring tactually different objects in the small space. A conclusion was made that all students were poor in tactile exploration of objects and needed a guidance in learning how to explore the items efficiently. A structured programme of activities was suggested to help the students to get a proficiency in tactile exploration of objects in small space following the model described above. Another conclusion was made that the suggested model was the only one possible from a physiological point of view.

Miscellaneous 11.17-11.20


The auditory aspect in sight pedagogical work

full text of lecture 11.17

Inge Bager and Lykke Jensen, Denmark

Institute for the Blind and partially Sighted
Rymarksvej 1, 2900 Hellerup, Denmark
Fax:+45 394 525 25

At The Institute for the Blind and Partially Sighted in Copenhagen in Denmark the teaching of our students has become more and more complex. The students are not "only" visually impaired. In addition they are refugees with no knowledge of the Danish language, or mentally retarded, or brain damaged or they have defective hearing.

This presentation will focus on the hearing pedagogical work, which has been systematised at the Institute. Thus all students are offered a hearing pedagogical examination and counselling.

The auditory sense is the crux of the matter in the compensating instruction. The acoustics are of outmost importance both for the daily life of the visually impaired person and for the teaching situation. Only by focusing on the auditory aspect you can give students the best learning conditions in communication subjects and secure that the visually impaired person can move safely indoor as well as outdoor.

The main issues are:

We would like to give an account of our practice in this field and discuss how to implement knowledge of the auditory sense in the teaching and counselling of visually impaired persons.


Setting up a braille printing office at the school for the blind in Antsirabe, Madagascar

full text of poster 11.18

Hans Baumann, the Netherlands

Project manager Foreign countries
Braille centre Sonneheerdt,
P.O. Box 14, 3850 AA Ermelo, the Netherlands
Fax:+31 341 498 210

School for the blind Antsirabe, Madagascar:

Five years ago I set up a braille printing office at the request of CBM (Christoffel Blinden Mission) and UBS (United Bible Society).
I started by giving one employee a few weeks of instructions.
At the moment 3 employees are continuously printing educational books.

School for the blind, Tirana, Albania:

At the request of Stichting Evidente, I also set up a braille printing office at this school. After a few weeks of instruction the employee could work independently and now supplies the school will all the necessary learning material.
In 2000 I intend to do the same in Pescha, Kosovo, at the request of the Albanian Society for the blind.


A virtual library for braille music - the miracle project

full text of poster 11.19

Antonio Quatraro, Italy

Miracle Project
Via Fibonacci 9, 50131 Firenze, Italy
Fax:+39 (0)55 588103

The main aim of the MIRACLE project is to create a world wide virtual library of music braille. The conversion of text to braille is, even with modern computers, much more expensive than the cost of the original text. Converting printed music into a form that can be read by visually impaired musicians can cost as much as ten times more than text conversion. It makes sense then to share that effort amongst the music braille producers around the world. The MIRACLE project is building the basis for this.


Post traumatic Stress Disorders in blind and partially sighted people in Ljubljana

full text of poster 11.20

Tina Runjic, Croatia

Faculty of Special Education and rehabilitation
Kuslanova 59a, Zagreb, 10000 Croatia
Fax:+385 1 22 99 50

During Croatian War of independence there were many war casualties. Approximately 50 persons who have visual impairment due to war trauma are included in this scientific research. After the medical rehabilitation most of them came to the Ward for recently visual impaired adults. They were included in rehabilitation programs (O&M, ADL, Braille, LVT) and professional training. Objectives of this research are to determine if there are symptoms of PTSD and is there connection between PTSD and achievements in rehabilitation programs.

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